instrumented rock bolts using method

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  • (PDF) A Review of Rock Bolt Monitoring Using Smart

    2020-3-7 · Instrumented rock bolts can be used to evaluate the rock bolt performance in situ by measuring the amount of strain the rock bolt is undergoing. Instrumented rock bolts with strain gauges were first used by Sawyer and Karabin ( 1975 ) to measure strain in rock bolts.

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  • The Design of Improved Optical Fibre Instrumented ...

    Strain measurements were obtained using rock bolts instrumented with optical fibers that possessed high spatial resolution ( 1.25 – 2.5 mm). Corroboration with a past database of rock bolt measurements in shale aided in the deduction of the final support design method.

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  • DESIGN METHODS FOR ROCK BOLTS USING IN-SITU

    2012-4-11 · to instrumented rock bolts. The ROSS is cut from a thin (1.5 mm) sheet of 304 stainless steel. 304 Fig 3. Drawing of OS3600 FBG triplet configuration. The two surface mounted gages are oriented vertically and horizontally. They sit in metal u-shaped brackets welded to the heads of two rock bolts. The embedded sensor is grouted into

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  • (PDF) The Design of Improved Optical Fibre

    2017-4-25 · Rock bolts are the devices that used to reinforce the rock masses in mining tunnels and underground excavation structures. The loading level of the rock bolt indicates the reinforcing efficiency and is able to ensure safe underground operation by giving …

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  • Application of a FBG-Based Instrumented Rock Bolt in

    Instrumented rock bolts are a special type of bolts that are instrumented with strain gages within the bolt, which are used to monitor the axial force and the strain distribution along the length...

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  • A new method for measuring in situ strain in intact rock ...

    2020-6-7 · Spang and Egger (1990) modelled fully grouted rock bolts installed across rough joints using the Finite Element Method (FEM). They used Von-Mises failure criteria for rock, grout and steel. The bolt-grout de-bonding behaviour was simulated by using a low Young’s Modulus. Grasselli (2005) used FEM software to simulate the double shear test.

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  • A load measuring anchor plate for rock bolt using

    Instrumented rock bolt data has been taken for validation of the model from field observation. It has been observed in the model that maximum axial load developed on the bolt is very close to the...

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  • Instrumented Rockbolts - Earth Sciences

    A method for acquiring strain data relating to the strain of a rock mass in an underground mine, the method comprising: sampling one or more strain gauges with a data logger and recording multiple strain signals from each strain gauge of the one or more strain gauges in memory of the data logger, the strain signals corresponding to the strain ...

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  • Instrumented rock bolt, data logger and user interface ...

    Rock bolts have been widely applied with roadway excavation in underground coal mines to prevent roadway collapse and improve the stability of roadway surrounding rocks. Overloading and failures of rock bolts could result in accidents or casualties in coal mine roadways. Consequently, monitoring axial forces and work conditions of rock bolts plays an increasingly important role in ensuring ...

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  • d-REBAR Instrumented Rock Bolt - Earth Sciences

    2020-10-13 · grouted rock bolts of 2.4 m with wire mesh. Load induced over instrumented rock bolts in immediate roof was also measured during the different stages of development. Considering the geo-mining condition of the Panel V, numerical modelling was done to understand the loading characteristics of the rock bolts using FLAC3D tool.

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  • Application of a FBG-Based Instrumented Rock Bolt in

    Instrumented cable bolts developed at the Spokane Research Laboratory of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health were used in conjunction with existing ground control to monitor rock mass loads at various field sites (FMC Granger, Getchell, Meikle, SSX, K-2, and Stillwater).

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  • Field and simulation study for rock bolt loading ...

    2018-3-9 · Simulation, full column grout rock bolts, instrumented rock bolt. 1. Introduction . Presently, the trend of Indian underground coal mine is going into mechanization using continuous miner technology in Bord and Pillar working. The machine has operated in wider . 351

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  • Case Studies of Cable Bolts Using Instrumented King

    2020-2-24 · rock bolts. In-situ monitoring of rock bolt deformation under bedding ... be used to separate the coaxial strain and lateral strain using the method in [4]. A 3D strain profile is the result. Using ... This involved feeding the DOS instrumented rock bolt into the bolt hole using a bolting rig, tensioning the bolt (Using …

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  • Support Design during Depillaring Operation in Bord and ...

    2017-11-6 · Signer et al. [12] continued the research using strain gauge instrumented rock bolts in coal mine gate roads, and determined that, even though the bolts were plated, they displayed the characteristic behaviour predicted by the axial continuum theoretical model without a faceplate (Figure 1a). Specifically, a distinct maximum in the load profile ...

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  • The Application of Distributed Optical Strain Sensing to ...

    Support Design during Depillaring Operation in Bord and Pillar Panel Using Numerical Simulation Method. June 2018; Modelling, Measurement and ... full column grout rock bolts, instrumented rock bolt.

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  • 'DESIGN METHODS FOR ROCK BOLTS USING IN-SITU

    2019-8-15 · Strain measurements were obtained using rock bolts instrumented with optical fibers that possessed high spatial resolution ( 1.25 – 2.5 mm). Corroboration with a past database of rock bolt measurements in shale aided in the deduction of the final support design method.

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  • Instrumented Rockbolt - GEOKON

    2019-5-21 · Readout of the Model 4910 Instrumented Rockbolt is accomplished by using the Model GK-404 or GK-405 Readouts. Rod connectors of the appropriate size are required. Technical Specifications Standard Range 2500 µε, equivalent to around 27,215 kg in a 25 mm diameter bolt Resolution 0.5 µε, equivalent to around 5 kg in a 25 mm diameter bolt

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  • Support Design during Depillaring Operation in Bord and ...

    2018-3-9 · Simulation, full column grout rock bolts, instrumented rock bolt. 1. Introduction . Presently, the trend of Indian underground coal mine is going into mechanization using continuous miner technology in Bord and Pillar working. The machine has operated in wider . 351

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  • Ground support loading monitored with Rock Bolt Sensor ...

    Instrumented rock bolts are one tool for evaluating load on the bolt and understanding how these loads change. With nearby seismicity, the dynamic load on the bolt is difficult to ... The method provides a model of the mechanics of the rock failure from the seismic radiation pattern.

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  • Case Studies of Cable Bolts Using Instrumented King

    Instrumented cable bolts developed at the Spokane Research Laboratory of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health were used in conjunction with existing ground control to monitor rock mass loads at various field sites (FMC Granger, Getchell, Meikle, SSX, K-2, and Stillwater).

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  • Field and simulation study for rock bolt loading ...

    2020-10-13 · grouted rock bolts of 2.4 m with wire mesh. Load induced over instrumented rock bolts in immediate roof was also measured during the different stages of development. Considering the geo-mining condition of the Panel V, numerical modelling was done to understand the loading characteristics of the rock bolts using FLAC3D tool.

    Get Price
  • Recent Advances in Rock Engineering (RARE 2016)

    Instrumented rock bolt is the monitoring device having numbers of strain gauges installed in the bolt. This will be used to get the value of axial load and bending moment. Instrumented rock bolts having 18 gauges (9 left and right side) has been installed in mineas shown in Fig. 5. Five instrumented rock bolts named (IRB1, IRB2, IRB3, IRB4,

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  • Rock bolt load analysis and monitoring - Mining3

    2017-11-6 · A distributed instrumentation scheme for rock bolts involves a compromise between the number of gauges (i.e. cost) and the accuracy with which the strain profile along the bolt is resolved. Instrument cost is important since a percentage of instrumented bolts will be lost due to operational related attrition, firstly because the

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  • New Technology for Measuring the In Situ Performance

    2017-8-16 · ment by applying instrumented rock bolts which embedded strain gauges and tensometric sensors [11]. Liu et al. sug-gested transient electromagnetic method (TEM) for detect-ing surrounding rock damage zone range and deformation [12]. Erich discussed collapse feature of coal mine roadways by employing seismic reflection investigation method [13].

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  • 'DESIGN METHODS FOR ROCK BOLTS USING IN-SITU

    2019-8-15 · Strain measurements were obtained using rock bolts instrumented with optical fibers that possessed high spatial resolution ( 1.25 – 2.5 mm). Corroboration with a past database of rock bolt measurements in shale aided in the deduction of the final support design method.

    Get Price
  • Instrumentation procedures for fully grouted rock

    Researchers at the US Bureau of Mines have developed a new technique for bonding strain gauges to rock bolts. These instrumented bolts are used to determine load at intervals along the length of the bolt so that reliable, consistent measurements for the design of support systems can be obtained. In this Information Circular, this technique is described in detail and should result in improved ...

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  • Field Tests of Cable Bolts Using Instrumented King Wires

    2012-8-30 · between the cable-grout-rock interface can be compared to actual rock deformation. Results of Measurements on Instrumented King Wire Cable Bolts Loads on the cable bolts were measured from April 29 through July 11, 1999. Mining activities influencing the inter-section were progressing from northeast of the site to the south (figure 4).

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  • Rock bolt load analysis and monitoring - Mining3

    2012-8-29 · cables were loaded to 180 kN using hydraulic pull test equipment. A strain-to-load curve is shown in figure 3 and is typical of what Goris et al. (1994) observed in pull tests with conventional cable bolts. These tests aid in explaining how load on cable bolts is transferred from the cable to the grout and then into the rock mass.

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  • Evaluation of Instrumented Cable and Rebar Bolts as

    2018-1-1 · Current instrumented rock bolts are made up of plastic or polymer materials, and the optical fiber sensors are capable of being embedded within the FRP rock bolts during the manufacture stage [17,18]. Whereas the steel rock bolt subjects to high temperature and stress during the manufacture stage, which results in difficulties on optical fiber ...

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  • Application of a FBG-Based Instrumented Rock Bolt in

    transferred to the instrumented cable bolts. These gauges were 12.5 mm long and embedded into a remanufactured king wire that replaced the conventional king wire. Cable bolt performance, quality of grout, and installation techniques were also assessed. By using instrumented …

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  • Case Studies of Cable Bolts Using Instrumented King Wires

    2016-7-19 · on the rock bolt to rotate. Using the tension-to-torque ratio of the calibrated torque wrench, determine the tension in the rock bolt. 4. Significance and Use 4.1 Performance.-Rock bolts are used for support in a variety of engineering applications. This test provides a quantitative measure of the performance of a rock bolt or its anchor. 4.2 ...

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  • Determining Rock Bolt or Anchor Tension Using a Torque

    2018-4-7 · tensioned bolts or cables with mesh; and sprayed concrete of Steel Fibre Reinforced Shotcrete (SFRS) or steel rib with concrete for the support of a large permanent civil engineering excavation. The philosophy of design of any underground excavation should be to utilise the rock mass itself as the principal

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  • IS 15026 (2002): Tunneling Methods in Rock Masses ...

    2017-5-5 · rock bolts, has a relatively long history. In Poland, the rock bolt support with a rubber head was used as early as the 1970s. A deformable rubber bushing was used instead of the mechanical head [1], [14], [34], increas-ing the deformability of expansion shell rock bolt sup-port by using the pads made of pine wood, conveyor belt, and cast rubber.

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  • Paper: Mechanisms of rockbolt support in jointed rock

    2012-8-30 · between the cable-grout-rock interface can be compar­ ed to actual rock deformation. Results of Measurements on Instrumented King Wire Cable Bolts Loads on the cable bolts were measured from April 29 through July 11, 1999. Mining activities influencing the intersection were progressing from northeast of the site to the south (figure 4).

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  • Case Studies of Cable Bolts Using Instrumented King Wires

    2020-10-13 · : A practical method for the estimation of roof bolt axial loads in the field as a means for evaluating rock support performance in underground mine openings such as drifts and gate roads is presented. The method is based on attaching an instrumented coupler to the bolt head prior to …

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  • Evaluation of Rock Support Performance through ...

    The dynamic testing was executed using the drop test rig of the CanmetMINING Laboratories in Ottawa (Figure 5(a)). Two types of drop tests were set up. The first set up was for continuous tube configuration with a non-instrumented D-Bolt (Figure 5(b)), and the other for split tube configuration with instrumented D-Bolts (Figure 5(c)).

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  • Load-deformation behaviour of a deformable rockbolt

    The antitension, antishear, and antirotation of bolts near the joint and the hardening characteristics of bolts after the plastic yielding can be comprehensively reflected using the proposed model. The rock bolt model has been incorporated into the original numerical manifold method (NMM) procedure developed for realistic applications.

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  • New Rock Bolt Model and Numerical Implementation

    USING INSTRUMENTED CABLE AND REBAR BOLTS By Lewis A. Martin,1 Catherine A. Dreesbach,2 and Rimas Pakalnis, Ph.D.3 ABSTRACT Instrumented cable bolts developed at the Spokane Research Laboratory of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health were used in conjunction with existing ground control systems to monitor rock

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  • EVALUATION OF GROUND SUPPORT AT A TRONA MINE

    grout quality of grouted rock bolts (Beard et al 2003, Madenga et al 2006, Cui and Zou 2006, Zou et al 2010, Cui and Zou 2012) and delamination of resin anchored rock bolts (He et al 2005). These techniques were shown to successfully detect the rock bolts integrity from certain aspects. The loads experienced by the anchor plate can be indi-

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  • Smart Materials and Structures TECHNICAL NOTE

    2018-4-9 · 32 U-Cell ID Bolt Type Location Axial Load (tons) Temp 110525022 8ft rebar 4000L_904 right wall 3.35 19o 110525023 8ft rebar 4000L_904 back 4.65 21o 110525024 8ft rebar 4000L_904 left wall 3.12 20o 110525021 8ft rebar 4000L_948 right wall 3.57 21o 110525025 8ft rebar 4000L_948 back 3.23 21o 110525015 8ft rebar 4000L_948 left wall 3.42 20o 110525012 8ft rebar 4050 Crusher Ramp right …

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  • Monitoring Axial Load on Rock Bolts and Roof Bolts in ...

    Ground reinforcement using bolts is effective for underground excavations. The ground response of expansive loess tunnels with bolt reinforcement remains poorly understood. Therefore, this paper proposes an analytical solution for bolted rock in expansive ground using the convergence-confinement method.

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  • Evaluation of Instrumented Cable and Rebar Bolts as

    2012-8-29 · cables were loaded to 180 kN using hydraulic pull test equipment. A strain-to-load curve is shown in figure 3 and is typical of what Goris et al. (1994) observed in pull tests with conventional cable bolts. These tests aid in explaining how load on cable bolts is transferred from the cable to the grout and then into the rock mass.

    Get Price
  • LOAD BEHAVIOR OF GROUTED BOLTS IN SEDIMENTARY

    2021-3-9 · Pennsylvania. Fourteen instrumented bolts were installed in sedimentary rock and tested using the same procedures as employed in the laboratory tests. In addition, these bolts were loaded to failure to study their nonlinear behavior. The purpose of this investigation was to …

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  • 150 ROCK BOLT EXTENSION MONITOR ROCK BOLTS IN

    2019-12-2 · Instrumented rock bolts can be installed in groups, or clusters in areas where bolt performance data is required. 1 to 20+ bolts can identification tag then allocated to a mine defined cluster. Bolt strain sensors are supplied in a form that can be applied by mine technical personnel to standard rock bolts as used in relevant production areas.

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  • Determination of Physical Properties of Cable Bolts in ...

    2012-8-29 · The instrumented cable bolt provided reproducible point measurements of cable load as opposed to load measurements averaged over significant cable lengths. Such point measurements can assist in interpreting the influence of cable confinement, grout quality, rock mass stiffness, and other factors. The instrumented cable bolt is a practical field

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  • Case Studies of Cable Bolts Using Instrumented King Wires

    transferred to the instrumented cable bolts. These gauges were 12.5 mm long and embedded into a remanufactured king wire that replaced the conventional king wire. Cable bolt performance, quality of grout, and installation techniques were also assessed. By using instrumented …

    Get Price
  • New method allows for anchorage check for rock

    Resin bolts provide the biggest cause for concern. Tests to determine the integrity of rock bolt installations are being developed. A new type of bolt is described which provides anchorage on installation and allows for follow-up checks when required.

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  • rock bolts Archives - International Mining

    2021-7-4 · “Rock bolts have formed part of the underground mining environment since the 1890s and are effective in stabilising and controlling the immediate roof and ribs (sides) of tunnels. “Although they are an integral part of the underground mining support structure, very little is known about the actual load distribution along a rock bolt.

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  • Numerical Modelling of Fully Grouted Rock Bolts

    Rock bolts are one of the primary underground support systems utilized to stabilize the rock mass surrounding the opening of an excavation by transferring the load from the surrounding rock to the more stable rock mass further from the excavation. Modelling fully grouted rock bolts has been the focus of many researchers due to the difficulties associated with capturing the interaction ...

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  • The Estimation of Post-Peak Rock Mass Properties ...

    2018-9-21 · A significant component of underground mining costs stems from ground support in the form of rock bolts, mesh and screen, cable bolts, and shotcrete. Should any of this support approach or reach failure (stripped or broken cable bolts, severe bagging of screen, large numbers of broken rock bolts, etc.) then the support needs to be rehabilitated.

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  • Rock Bolts Health Monitoring Using Self-Excited

    Health monitoring of rock bolts can indirectly indicate the state of rock which is crucial for mining safety. This paper presents an innovative application of the Self-excited Acoustical System SAS for stress change measurement in rock bolts which are used to secure roofs and walls in mines and tunnels. The method gives information on the change of rock stress in the immediate area next to the ...

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